I would like to know the best way to get data from a SQL view into a temporary SharePoint list from within SharePoint.
Which version of SharePoint.
If you're using SharePoint 2010, the easiest way is an external list with BCS through SharePoint Designer.
First you have to create an external list using SharePoint designer and then you can create sharepoint list out of the BCS List.
Couple of other options for a one-time load might be through integration with Excel / Access. First get the data into the office application from your SQL backend and then use Excel or Access to create the list within SharePoint.
There are some third party solutions available on CodePlex that will handle the sync. I believe SLAM will do what you're talking about: http://slam.codeplex.com/