Yes they can be active at the same time on the root level site collections, but you can disable any if you are not using them or no more needed.
Please read below what each feature do:
SharePoint Server Enterprise Site Collection features
Enables the following services: InfoPath Forms Services, Visio Services,
Access Services, Excel Services
Applies only to the SharePoint Server Enterprise License
SharePoint Server Publishing Infrastructure
Enables a set of Web Content Management functionality such as Team
Sites and Public-facing websites. This includes centralized libraries,
content types, master pages, and page layouts. Enables page scheduling
and other publishing functionality for a site collection.
SharePoint Server Standard Site Collection features
Enables the following services: User Profile Service, Search Service
Applies only to the SharePoint Server Standard License