I'm pretty sure all content type definitions created in VS are, by default, site content types.
There is no attribute in the Content Type element of a content type definition that allows you to target a specific list.
Even if you were going to create a list definition declaritively in VS, to include a content type in the list you would have to create a content type definition separately, and then base the list definition off the content type definition. But because the content type definition is separate, it will still be deployed as a site content type.
If you want to create a site content type from the UI, you would go to Site Settings, then Site Content Types (under Galleries), and create a new one there.
If you want to create a list content type, you would have to go to the List Settings page for the particular list, go to Advanced Settings and allow the management of content types, then add a pre-existing site content type to the list, and then edit the list level copy of that content type.
It seems I was wrong. According to this MSDN article on Site and List Content Types:
You can create a content type collection for a new list as part of the
list definition before list instances are provisioned. Within the list
definition's ContentTypes element, you can reference existing site
content types, and you can also define new content types. In this
case, the new content types are available only to list instances that
are created from the same list definition. The new content types are
not part of the site collection and are not available to other lists.
So it seems that you can create list scoped content types through a list definition created in VS.