The index component manages both index partitions and index replicas. Each index component in the search topology represents an index replica.

You use the index component PowerShell cmdlet (New-SPEnterpriseSearchIndexComponent) to manage both index partitions and index replicas. Each index component in the search topology represents an index replica. You divide the search index into discrete portions called index partitions. Each index partition is stored as a set of files on a local disk. To scale out the search index, you add a new index partition for each 10 million items. To achieve fault tolerance for the search index, you add an index replica of an existing index partition to the search topology. Each index replica contains the same information.

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