You are getting the properties from the User Profile Service Application, not directly from Active Directory.
In order to retrieve a property you will first have to make sure that it is synchronized. Organization is not one of the standard properties that is synced I believe.
The typical method would be to create a list with three columns: project, month, and projectedStaff. Adding a new estimate would just involve adding a row.
Power BI or Excel could connect to this list and do a "pivot" to output the data as you have in your example, where each month is in a different column.
Optionally, you could create a power app to ...
As a short answer, Yes, you can use List Workflow to update list item in another list based on condition in the first list
By using Update List Item Action below List Actions
You can specify Which list you need to update its related list item as shown below
After specifying the list, specify the field that you need to update based on the condition in the ...