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Today I made the mistake of clicking "select all" on a large group of domains in a synchronization connection in the user profile service. After I saved the connection I saw this error on the connections management page.

An error has occurred while accessing the SQL Server database or the SharePoint Server Search Service. If this is the first time you have seen this message, try again later. If this problem persists, contact your administrator.

Judging from the errors in the event log, the FIMS service is timing out connecting to or reading data from the SQL Server. Searching Google stated that some people were able to do an IISREST to correct the issue but this did not work for me. Not even restarting the server. Here is an example error from the event log.

.Net SqlClient Data Provider: System.Data.SqlClient.SqlException: Timeout expired.  The timeout period elapsed prior to completion of the operation or the server is not responding.
   at Microsoft.ResourceManagement.Utilities.ExceptionManager.ThrowException(Exception exception)
   at Microsoft.ResourceManagement.Data.Exception.DataAccessExceptionManager.ThrowException(SqlException innerException)
   at Microsoft.ResourceManagement.Data.DataAccess.GetObject(String commandName, SqlParameter[] parameters, Boolean includeRights, CultureInfo locale)
   at Microsoft.ResourceManagement.Data.DataAccess.GetObject(Guid objectId, Guid requestor, String[] attributeNames, Boolean includeRights)
   at Microsoft.ResourceManagement.ActionProcessor.DefaultActionProcessor.Read(Guid objectId, CultureInfo locale, Nullable`1 requestor, Nullable`1 resourceTime, String[] requestedAttributes, Boolean includeRights)
   at Microsoft.ResourceManagement.ActionProcessor.DefaultActionProcessor.ProcessOutputRequest(RequestType request)
   at Microsoft.ResourceManagement.WebServices.RequestDispatcher.ExecuteAction(RequestType request)
   at Microsoft.ResourceManagement.WebServices.RequestDispatcher.ExecuteAction[ResponseBodyType](RequestType request)
   at Microsoft.ResourceManagement.WebServices.RequestDispatcher.DispatchRequest[ResponseBodyType](RequestType request, Guid requestIdentifier, Object redispatchSingleInstanceKey)
   at Microsoft.ResourceManagement.WebServices.RequestDispatcher.DispatchRequest[ResponseBodyType](RequestType request)
   at Microsoft.ResourceManagement.WebServices.ResourceManagementService.Get(Message request)
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I got exceptionally lucky with this. I found this article which described basically the same problem but in relation to the FIMS proper and not to the version in SharePoint.

FIM 2010 R2: SQL timeout on using large sets in other sets

The author modified the file Microsoft.ResourceManagement.Service.exe.config and added two attributes to the resourceManagementService tag, dataReadTimeoutInSeconds and dataWriteTimeoutInSeconds as in this example.

<resourceManagementService externalHostName="myfimservice" dataReadTimeoutInSeconds="1200" dataWriteTimeoutInSeconds="1200"/>

It was difficult to find the location of the file. It's not in the normal location for a FIMS installation but is in the following directory:

C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office Servers\15.0\Service

I needed to restart the server and then I was able to delete the bad connection and recreate one for each domain.

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