You need to instead, use folders. You can break out the column values into respective folders and apply uninherited permissions to each folder. That way you will have a true security level for each "column"--which is now a folder. You can thus delete the column from the list, once all the data has been moved into their own folders.
Views will display and hide information based what you want in a view. It will display the columns you want, and filter in and out items that you care to display. It is only a view of the content, not the actual raw data. Much like a SQL query, others have the ability to read more than what the query is if they have access to it, but they may set up their own views, or if they know what they are looking for they can find it. Search and Explorer View can be an ally in this process. Be wary of using views as a security measure, as they are only meant to focus on data that is useful. If security of those documents are not an issue, views are the perfect way to focus on the data they need. They will see all the views available to them.