I need to retrieve List item column values with column names on item click. In SP2010, I have a XSL which calls the JavaScript. I have sent the list item id through the XSL into the JavaScript function.

context = new SP.ClientContext.get_current();
list = context.get_web().get_lists().getById(SP.ListOperation.Selection.getSelectedList());
pdfItem = list.getItemById(pdfItemID);  
    function(sender, args) {
        currentItemGUID = pdfItem.get_item('UniqueId');
    function(sender, args) {
        alert('Request Failed' + args.get_message() + '\nStackTrace: ' + args.get_stackTrace());
    }, "sp.js");

pdfItem.get_schemaXml(); didn't work


You can get column/fields name from list unless they are not consistent and then use them to fetch values for each key, here's how you can get all fields for a list,

function loadFieldCustProperty() {
        var clientContext = new SP.ClientContext();
        var targetList = clientContext.get_web().get_lists().getByTitle('List Title');
        fieldCollection = targetList.get_fields();
        clientContext.executeQueryAsync(onQuerySucceeded, onQueryFailed);

        function onQuerySucceeded() {

            var fe = fieldCollection.getEnumerator();
            while (fe.moveNext()) {
                var  field = fe.get_current();

                var xmlSchemaString = field.get_schemaXml();
                var fieldXml = parseXml(xmlSchemaString);
                var fieldElement = fieldXml.getElementsByTagName('Field')[0];
                var fieldPropertyValue = fieldElement.getAttribute('ColName'); //get ColName property value



        function onQueryFailed(sender, args) {
            //error handling goes here...


View custom field property value using JavaScript

Then, in here

currentItemGUID = pdfItem.get_item('UniqueId'); // here use field names e.g. using a enumerator for getting each column's value for selected item.

Also you might want to look at this question Javascript to get GUID from SharePoint

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