In localized (non-English-speaking) versions of on-premise SharePoint, some components of the URLs use localized strings (e.g. "Lists" and "SitePages").
Is this the case in Office 365? Or are the URLs left unlocalized due to its hosted nature?
During the site creation process you habe the option to select a spcific language. This languge is relevant for typical url and dropdown values. A task list has diffrent values for completion depending on the "base" language selected. This is the same as in SharePoint onpremis.
The urls you mentioned are the same in any language. But there can be specialized folder. The default document lib in a team site with language germany is using the url "freigegebene dokumente". This is the fact since SP2007.
In 2010 the publishing feature also created language specific libraries. Not sure is this is the same in 2013 (Office 365).