How can I use sharepoint 2010 that is on another server in VS?
When I try to create a new project for creating visual web part, A message "Sharepoint not installed on this client" is showed.
Same question here with some suggestions for a workaround. A workaround is not recommended, though.
By the way, I had the same problem, and installed SharePoint Foundation 2010. It does not have all the options like a "regular" SharePoint, but it is free, runs fast and matches the requirements to run a decent test. The installation is described here. Just make sure you follow every step from the article. There is also a great tutorial covered with screenshots here. It`s in German, but I think you can manage to get the essence out of it.