Can Sharepoint foundation version be used to develop apps on and then deploy to Sharepoint 2010 (Standard) version ?
Sure you can!
But do keep in mind that Foundation is more limited in what it can do (for example the Meta Data Service Application and User Profile Service is not available)
Here is a great comparison of the versions (for 2010)
As the others have said, yes you can develop solutions in Foundation for Standard or Enterprise as long as you're not targeting or using features that are not a part of Foundation. However just I have done, you may set up the trial version of Standard or Enterprise with Win Server 2008 installed on a VM for up to 6 months. Then install SP Designer and VS 2010. If you need the environment longer than 6 months, you may purchase a TechNet subscription or just reinstall everything on the VM - it's good practice anyway. I use Sun Virtual Machine since it supports 64-bit.