Is it possible to set up field-level security on list columns for both visibility and modification out of the box, or leveraging out-of-the-box methods without customized InfoPath forms or custom-coded items (because we do not have InfoPath available to us, nor do we have anyone with the custom-coding experience needed)?
No, but there are several paid for and free tools available to do this.
here are a few links:
- http://splistdisplaysetting.codeplex.com/ This one is free but needs some modification to work in SP 2010 (see here: http://somesharepoint.blogspot.com/2011/06/faire-fonctionner-splistdisplaysetting.html)
You can do it using SharePoint designer or Jquery. This may be helpful : SPD 2010: Can fields be hidden by Conditional Formatting on NewForm?
And also this one : http://www.sharepoint911.com/blogs/laura/Lists/Posts/Post.aspx?ID=3
Please note that the above ways don't provide any server side security but just hide the columns only in UI.
I personally used this one from codeplex and worked per our requirements where HR wanted to hide some confidential columns based on SharePoint user groups.
However, for certain cases where I had to implement custom infopath form the security did not kick in.
SharePoint does not support column level security，you have these alternative methods to implement this feature：
Paid tools with free trial: