From a SharePoint Enterprise perspective what do you miss If you use SQL Standard?
The following whitepaper details all enterprise-only features and how they are used with SharePoint:
It also includes a table that relates SQL Server editions with SharePoint functions.
The most complete overview of SQL Server features can be found at
For a more comprehensive, and interactive, list, check out http://sharepoint.microsoft.com/en-us/buy/Pages/Editions-Comparison.aspx