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I have developed an asp.net core 6 console application that is hosted inside an on-premises windows VM. and i am connecting to SharePoint uisng a clientID, ClientSecret & Certifficate, as follow:-

using Microsoft.Extensions.DependencyInjection;
using Microsoft.Extensions.Logging;
using PnP.Core.Auth;
using PnP.Core.Model.SharePoint;
using PnP.Core.Model.Teams;
using PnP.Core.QueryModel;
using PnP.Core.Services;
using PnP.Core.Services.Builder.Configuration;
using System;
using System.Collections;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Globalization;
using System.Runtime.CompilerServices;
using System.Security.Cryptography.X509Certificates;
using static Microsoft.ApplicationInsights.MetricDimensionNames.TelemetryContext;
using static System.Net.Mime.MediaTypeNames;

namespace ConsoleApp4
{
    internal class Program
    {
        static async Task Main(string[] args)
        {
            var tenantId = "b***c";
            var clientId = "7*****9";
            var certificatePath = @"c:\CERT\SPDashBoardIntegration.pfx";
            var certificatePassword = "***";

            // Initialize a new service collection
            var serviceCollection = new ServiceCollection();

            // Load the certificate
            var certificate = new X509Certificate2(certificatePath, certificatePassword, X509KeyStorageFlags.Exportable);

            // Configure logging
            serviceCollection.AddLogging(builder =>
            {
                builder.AddConsole();
            });

            // Add and configure PnP Core SDK
            serviceCollection.AddPnPCore(options =>
            {
                options.PnPContext.GraphFirst = true; // Set true if you prefer to use Graph over CSOM when possible
                                                      // options.HttpRequests.UserAgent = "ISV|Contoso|ProductX";
                options.Sites.Add("SiteToWorkWith", new PnPCoreSiteOptions
                {
                    SiteUrl = "https://********.sharepoint.com/sites/********-******",
                    AuthenticationProvider = new X509CertificateAuthenticationProvider(clientId, tenantId, certificate)
                });
            }); 
        int i = 0;
        // Build the service provider
        var serviceProvider = serviceCollection.BuildServiceProvider();

        // Use the service provider to get the IPnPContextFactory instance
        var pnpContextFactory = serviceProvider.GetRequiredService<IPnPContextFactory>();

        // Now you can use the IPnPContextFactory to get a PnPContext and perform operations
        var context = await pnpContextFactory.CreateAsync("SiteToWorkWith");
        // Assume the fields where not yet loaded, so loading them with the list
        var workOrderList = context.Web.Lists.GetByTitle("Work Orders", p => p.Title,
                                                             p => p.Fields.QueryProperties(p => p.InternalName,
                                                                                           p => p.FieldTypeKind,
                                                                                           p => p.TypeAsString,
                                                                                           p => p.Title));

now the VM itself is secure that only authorized users can access it. but my main concern is how the data mainly (ClientSecret, ClientID & Certificate) that will get sent from my console application to SharePoint online api will be secured over the network? or it is already secure? if not then how i can secure it? i mean will the (ClientSecret, ClientID & Certificate) be exposed over the network till it reaches the SharePoint online Api ??

Thanks

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