I have about 200 site collections, and I need to perform a bit of change in the master page, page layout, add a new site column, and change the list column how can I apply these changes on all site collections without doing this manually, it would be a boring task to apply each change I will do to all sites manually

I am sure there is a way to apply all changes automatically but I don't know, What's the best way to do that?

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Its a very broad question where the best answer probably depends on the specific situation. But generally speaking I would say there are 3 main options:

Powershell Create a script that adds the changes needed (lists, webparts, pages etc etc) and loop through all 200 sites and and apply the script.

PnP template Create a template with the changes needed. You can start by manually configuring the changes export what is needed and apply this template to the 200 sites. The PnP folks have good documentation on how to export and invoke site templates: https://pnp.github.io/powershell/cmdlets/Get-PnPSiteTemplate.html

Site design Create a site design that can be applied on the site centrally or from site admins if and when needed. Microsoft documentation here: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sharepoint/dev/declarative-customization/site-design-overview

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