Make a List and add a data column called Due Date. I've not done this for my example, but it might be best if you make a load of items on your list with Due Date values ranging from, say, September 1st - mid-December. It'll be clearer for when you make your views.
List set up and [TODAY] operator
We'll use the [TODAY] operator and make a load of views that use some filter conditions. These can be a bit fiddly, but you'll get the hang of it.
BTW [TODAY] just equals today's date, it's dynamic; when you log on tomorrow it will use tomorrow's date.
No need to use calculated columns for this.
Make a new view
This is just filtering out stuff that doesn't meet the filter criteria. So if the Due Date is equal to TODAY i.e. 19 Nov 2021 or is greater than it, then display it:
Note how the circled date does not show up, since 19+14 days = 33 days, so it is within the next 2 weeks, which this view isn't meant to show.
Make another new view
I'll take a tricky one: 31-60 days past due. This'll be a fiddly b*gger, but persevere and you'll get it right.
As you see, the filters use some logic, but I generally get this wrong by a day. Maybe I should use -61 or -59 on the first filter. And/or maybe I need to change the second filter value to use -30.
I get one result showing up:
An easy way to check this is to put the dates in Excel.
Excel Sanity Check
If your mind is bending, copy the dates into Excel to check the results. Once you've got the filters in the Sharepoint the views correctly configured, they'll work for ever, as you'd expect.
This'll help. Get your Due Dates in Excel, then see the screen shot, copy your dates and paste them as values (i.e. numbers). BTW 1/1/1900 = 1.
The result...only 1 item should show up in this view: