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I am migrating several on-premises websites to Azure, I can choose either SharePoint 2019 hosted on PaaS, or SharePoint Online as SaaS. I have external SQL Server databases that must remain in SQL Server (can't just convert to SharePoint lists). The SQL Server databases will either remain on-premises, or move to Azure SQL or SQL Server Managed Instance. What are my possible options for read-write communication between the SharePoint site and the SQL Server database?

I could use SSRS, but some sites will require read-write, not just read.

I could use BCS, but is there a better solution that's cloud-based?

I can use Power Apps and Power Automate, but I want to know what OTHER options there are within Azure, such as Azure Functions and Logic Apps. How do I imbed them in the SharePoint site?

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This is an opinionated answer, which may or may not be optimal for you. As always, the devil is in the details. But this is what I would suggest, given these requirements:

Move the database to Azure SQL. Move your SharePoint to SharePoint Online. (Unless you have a strong desire to manage your own infrastructure or have other considerations that might complicate this)

Set up an API layer - Azure Functions or App Service running .Net Core or whatever - to manage your CRUD operations to and from the database. Secure it with Azure Active Directory and call it client side from your SharePoint Online sites.

This arrangement separates your data layer from your application layer and gives you some flexibility should your future requirements change. It also offloads a lot of IT burden and reduces risk.

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