I have two site collections, and on both I have an identical list with a people picker that allows for multiple people to be selected. On one I can filter that column by [Me] to show only items where I am in that column value. On the other it does not work and I receive an error. I am not certain what the difference could be or where to start troubleshooting.
In the error message, it shows you use "contains" in the filter action.
Whether you use "contains" in the filter action in the two list, please check it.
Per my test in my end, this behavior is by default.
As a workaround, you could create a single line of text column in the list. Text column have the same value as person and group column. Then use text column in the filter.