There is no direct way to navigation to edit a response and edit it.
As a workaround, you can create a SharePoint Designer workflow and send an mail with the edit link to the submitter. Then the submitter could edit the response directly via the link.
Steps for your reference:
1. Edit a response and copy the address link.
The link should be like:
2. Create a SharePoint Designer workflow for your survey list.
3. Insert "Send an Email" action into it.
4. Edit the action, set "To" to Created By:
5. Set Subject and body as your requirement.
6. select the area that you want to put the link and set the link as:
Note: The URL in the String Builder is the copied link in the step1. You need to change "ID=xx" to "CurrentItem:ID".
7. Set the workflow automatically start when an item is created.
8. Publish the workflow
The email that submitter received is like:
Please have a try and let's know the result.