The error listed in the title is repeatedly showing up in the ULS logs, with four different GUIDs. After failing to find any database with a matching guid via get-spdatabase, it was noticed that the guids listed are actually the guids for the servers in the farm:
get-spserver | select address, id
The above command returns the GUIDs being reported in the log.
More details from the log: the name indicates that perhaps this has to do with a feature activation, as the name column has: "timer job job-app-install-queue", and "timer job job-async-feature-activation2"
Any suggestions on what is causing this or how to track this down further?