I would like to know if I need to patch any component used by SharePoint Server 2016 that its update is not included in the monthly KBs published by Microsoft. Like for example Distributed Cache components, or any of the prerequisites that you have to install before installing SharePoint Server 2016 on servers.
SharePoint always patched by CU, their is no separate patches unless MSFT announced it. but their couple of independent product which can be patched independently.
- Workflow Manager Server
- Office Online Server
- .Net framework
- Windows Server
- Distributed Cache (App Fabric) should be patched independently of SharePoint.