what version of visual studio is needed for sharepoint 2010 besides VS2010? My question is whether or not a sharepoint 2010 server can support newer versions of VS?
The below are the supported/unsupported
Visual Studio versions for
Visual Studio 2017: No.
Visual Studio 2017 is supported for SharePoint 2016, SharePoint 2013 and Office 365 for more details, check Install Office / SharePoint Developer Tools for Visual Studio 2017
Visual Studio 2015: Yes.
For more details check Missing SharePoint 2016 Project Template in Visual Studio 2015.
Visual Studio 2013: Yes.
For more details check Couldn’t find office/SharePoint template in Visual Studio Community 2013.
Refer to the flloiwng article about Availability of Features in Visual Studio Versions: