I don't know the full answer. But perhaps this can get you started. If you have already got data extracted from AD, perhaps you have it in a .csv file. In Sharepoint you can create an external list (Add app). (My screenshot is from SP 2013).
We have one or two things set up to extract data from other systems and bring it in to Sharepoint. I believe powershell is used, in combination with a Task which Windows Task Scheduler runs. It runs the script and updates the .csv file.
Next the .csv file is hooked up to the external Sharepoint list.
In turn, the external Sharepoint list is hooked up to a 'native' Sharepoint list. The external lists have limited functionality and should be looked on as being a 'stepping stone' to getting your data in to Sharepoint.
As for looping back to refresh AD - I can't help with this part. Hopefully this helps a little though.