how to create and deploy Master Page and page layouts using the SharePoint Framework?
SharePoint Framework is all about related to creating client side webparts only?
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As of now, you cannot create master pages and page layouts using SharePoint Framework.
In SPFX, there is nothing like Master Pages and Page Layouts. You can try SPFX extensions for Page Styling. Here are a few links for your help:
Hope the above will help you. Let me know if you need anything else.