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I'm new in developing SharePoint 2013 (on premises), and I want to use Visual Studio (VS). My question is the following:

Where to install VS? In the same server like SharePoint? Or can I install it on my local machine?

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For SharePoint server side solution example Visual Web Part,custom timer job then install VS in the same server as SharePoint. For client side solution like SharePoint add-in, then you can install VS in your local computer.

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This post answers it for Visual Studio 2015. It seems like you can select a destination to install. The answers explains that it installed here:

C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Visual Studio 14.0
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Depends on what you want to develop.

You would install it on the dev server which contains sharepoint (full trust dev like WSP).

You could setup visual studios for remote development (app parts only dev).

answered here already: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/15381979/do-i-need-to-have-sharepoint-2013-installed-on-my-local-machine-for-web-part-dev

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You will need to have VS and SP installed on same machine for best development experience when doing legacy SP development. There are few ways to solve this:

  1. Install SP and VS directly on your local computer
  2. Install SP and VS to a virtual machine you run on your local computer
  3. Install SP and VS to virtual machine running on a server somewhere (such as Azure VM, or some company internal VM host)

So what this means is that you create a development environment somewhere instead of installing VS to the real production SP server.

For the three options, I'd suggest 3, if not possible, then 2, and only if that is not an option 1. Obviously 3 requires suitable server hardware and rather performant network connection from your machine to the VM server, as you'll be working over Remote Desktop connection.

For 1 and 2, there are some benefits, like being able to work without any internet connection, but you will need pretty performant machine with SSD, 16 GB RAM (minimum), i5/i7 CPU.

If you're a group of developers, you can save resources and costs by using common Active Directory and SQL Server instead of everyone installing them on each development machine (or VM instance).

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