Yes you can install the latest CU for SharePoint 2016. As you mentioned in your question, November 2017 is latest CU (which include the Security Updates as well). You can install it on RTM version of SharePoint 2016.
For SharePoint 2016, MSFT make it easy for multiple Language installed environment, Now you need to download one exe file irrespective of language pack installed on your server. Now single exe file include fix for all languages no matter which language you select when downloading the package from the MSFT site. Before we have to download one package for each installed language pack.
You need to install the both files (language independent & language dependent as well). Order really doesnot matter, but make sure both package installed followed by running config wizard on all servers in the farm. Sometime you have to run the following pwoershell psconfig command to get the no action required status from the central admin.
PSConfig.exe -cmd upgrade -inplace b2b -force
If you dont want to run the Config wizard from GUI then run the below powershell (thanks to Trevor)
PSConfig.exe -cmd upgrade -inplace b2b -wait -cmd applicationcontent -install -cmd installfeatures -cmd secureresources -cmd services -install
November 2017 CU for SharePoint Server 2016 is available for download