I am trying to reverse-engineer this list.
What type of list is this?
How can I tell/how do I reverse-engineer these in the future?
How do I re-create this list?
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Check in the url - common types are List or Document Library or Task List.
If you want to recreate this list, you will need to create the same columns in it.
Are you familiar with Views? This view is using two 'Group By' - it is grouping first by Status and then by Drill Date. These are both columns in your list. To see this for yourself - select Modify View, scroll down until you come to the Group By section.
Can you go to Site Actions > Site Contents and take a screen shot of the icon / tile that is associated with this list? Usually the graphic associated with the list is a good clue as to what sort of list was used when it was created. For example if you see an icon with a clipboard then we know a task list was used, each icon holds meaning and is associated with the original starting point for each list.
If you want to re-create the list in the future you go to list settings > save list as template. (given you have permissions to do that)
Here are some icons from a 2010 site.