We have installed latest windows security updates in our staging SharePoint 2013 farm, and after we should required to run SharePoint configuration wizard or no need?
Yes you have to run the config wizard as a best practice, Security updates are cumulative which means include previous fix in it. So you dont know if previous updates include the SharePoint related fix in it.
No, you do not have to run the Config Wizard after installing non-SharePoint updates. As the updates you've listed are not SharePoint patches, the Config Wizard does not apply in this scenario.
For SharePoint patches (security, hotfix, cumulative/public updates, service packs), yes you do need to run the Config Wizard post-install.