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How SharePoint-Hosted Apps Authenticate and Authorization? Is it same as Provider-Hosted Apps or different?

Provider-Hosted Apps use OAuth; what about SharePoint-Hosted Apps?

For cross domain scripting we have cross domain libraries SP.RequestExecutor, is it for scripting only or also for Authentication?

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SharePoint Hosted Apps is only about client-side: the cient authenticates directly against the server. There's no need for advanced authentication mechanism since there's no third-party involved.

oAuth, for instance, allows a third-party (the "provider" part in the case of a provider-hosted App) to "act as" the initial client: even if the request is from a completely random server on the net, SharePoint (kinda) sees it as if it was the client itself.

In the case of a SharePoint-hosted App, it's only a matter of client JavaScript code: so it is either authenticated thanks to a cookie already present in the browser, or it establishes a new authentication handshake, in a transparent manner.

SP.RequestExecutor is more a CORS workaround than authentication. Authentication is not made at that API level, but is mostly handled by the browser.
Said differently (that infamous CORS problem taken apart), the SharePoint-hosted model is nothing else than JavaScript injection in the page.

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