Microsoft has said that SPFx was really designed for SharePoint Online, but it will be available in SharePoint 2016--but nothing on SharePoint 2013. Here is an article that explains (in the comments)...
Will SharePoint Framework be available in on-premises?
Date - 28th of
We are working getting SharePoint Framework released to SharePoint
2016 during 2017 calendar year. We do not have other public dates
Short answer, probably not. But no one really knows for sure, because it hasn't been addressed.
To your second question -- no, it's a completely different animal, like trying to push a square block in a round hole.