No, The ID field is SharePoint only
You can't edit it,
You can't set its numbering,
You can't use it in Calculated Columns,
because the ID is created in the database layer after all Formulas are calculated
Do not use ID
ID is an internal number SharePoint requires to store data in the SQL server database
Its best not to teach users (or anyone) about ID, consider it an internal SharePoint number.
Yes, it is part of the URL, because many moons ago that was the only way to reference Web content
Once you start moving content around with workflows or copy/paste/backup/restore you will run in all sorts of trouble when you have used ID to reference content.
Because it will most likely get a different ID number
You can make Fields read-only by editting their ContentTypes (like everyone learning SharePoint that will keep you busy for at least a month) No shortcuts to be taken their, as messing with ContentTypes can also break functionality if you do not know what you are doing.