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I'm building a solution where each Project site has a set of custom properties set on the property bag.

I've gone in for one site and through powershell I set those custom properties as IndexedPropertyKeys, then I turned those into managed properties.

That worked well and now those managed properties can be used as refiners in search, but I noticed that only refiners show up for the site I set the IndexedProperties for.

Do I need to run a loop in my farm to find each of those properties for each site and make those indexed as well? I was hoping that once the property was set to be indexed search would recognize it for each site.

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Everything in the SharePoint world revolves around the site collection (SPSite) and it's boundaries. As such, when you defined custom properties from the property bag as IndexedPropertyKeys, you were able to use said properties as managed properties in search refiners, but only at the site collection level. That was evident in your results mentioned.

You could script a loop to apply the same approach to each site collection in your farm that uses the same properties, but if that is every site collection in the farm, or at least the web app, you would need to cater to future created site collections via either manual intervention or event receivers on site creation... Not very efficient. Add to that the fact that your definition of new managed properties requires a full crawl to take effect as search refiners and you're approaching rocky ground the more your data grows especially if your search administrator simply defined a single content source containing all SharePoint sites. Unfortunately, most administrators don't have extensive search experience so this problem only surfaces later on when it is much harder to correct.

Instead I recommend you evaluate what those property bag values are being used for and seek an approach that STARTS with a Managed Property instead thus reducing the need for recurring full crawls.

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