There should not be an issue while applying the updates to SQL server as SharePoint version you are is fine with SQL 2012. Now here are some practices you need to follow while apply the SQL updates.
- Stop the IIS on the SharePoint Server
- Stop / unscheduled the Search Crawls
- stop / Unscheduled the User profile Sync
- Stop if you have any custom tasks on sharepoint servers
- Stop the SharePoint timer and Admin services
- Backup the SQL server( all the databases)
Now apply the SQL updates, once done then start / schedule above services.
If you dont want to deal with this, you can simply shut down the SharePoint servers, once done with sql updates then come back and start them.
Reason behind this, when you applying the SP3 to SQL during that time frame if user access SharePoint and SharePoint will make a connection to sql but databases are not ready for that which can cause the corruption.