How can I get the table where all the User Profiles are stored? So that normally I can check those with SQL Query? Is it possible?
Yes, it is possible.
But it is not supported, if you ran the queries against the sharepoint database then your support contract with MSFT will over. That's mean if you have an issue and contact MSFT and they found such activity, they will not support the sharepoint.
Now if you have dev(only Dev) then run query against user profile db. Like this
CREATE VIEW [dbo].[vw_UserProfilePropertyBag] AS SELECT upf.NTName AS Login, upf.PreferredName AS Name, upf.Email, upf.LastUserUpdate AS Modified, pl.PropertyName AS Property, upv.PropertyVal AS Value FROM SharePoint_User_ProfileDB.dbo.UserProfile_Full AS upf INNER JOIN SharePoint_User_ProfileDB.dbo.UserProfileValue AS upv ON upf.RecordID = upv.RecordID INNER JOIN SharePoint_User_ProfileDB.dbo.PropertyList AS pl ON upv.PropertyID = pl.PropertyID