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  1. What is the difference between Anonymous user authentication enabled at web application level and Site collection level .
  2. How can be it by default anonymous user has view application pages permissions ? when i enable anonymous access to a site
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You can enable or disable anonymous access for a web application. If you enable anonymous access for a web application, site administrators can then grant or deny anonymous access at the site collection, site, or item level. If anonymous access is disabled for a web application, no sites within that web application can be accessed by anonymous users.

WebApplication : Has Read permission on the all site collection

SiteCollection : Has Full Read permission on the Single site collection

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Q1A1 - As per my understanding, enabling anonymous access for a Zone is required so that site collection administrator can enable it at site collection level(for site or list/libraries level). Disallowing at web app level, site collection administrator cannot enable at site level. Below is screenshot of text at web application level which confirms my statement.

Ref image - http://www.dynamics101.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/042213_2311_EnableAnony5.png

Q2A2 - this is because viewlsts.aspx and other default pages under layouts are applications pages and this needs to be accessible to anon users when you are enabling anon at site. without giving them access on this page they will not be able to browse this pages.

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