Is there is a way to Edit InfoPath columns in Quick edit view, without using InfoPath Forms with SharePoint 2013/Online 365
Yes, you go to the list in SharePoint.
'List' tab, 'list settings'.
Then you can edit existing columns to some extent - there are less options than in InfoPath.
You can also create additional columns if needed.
when you are publishing your InfoPath form to a SharePoint Form library you can choose columns to promote to SharePoint list columns. Normally such a promoted column will be readonly in SharePoint, but you can enable it to be editable by checking the checkbox 'Allow users to edit data in this field by using a datasheet or properties page' (Modity the promoted column in InfoPath Designer).