If you are using SharePoint 2013 you can kind of achieve that through some tricky client side rendering, although it would not be true column level security.
What you would have to do is set up a client side rendering script for the edit form that would:
- Delay rendering until you can check permissions for the current user (already a fairly tricky proposition, although this technique looks promising)
- If the user has the right permissions, render the field normally with the edit control
- If the user does not have the right permissions, render the field as the default display form rendering (no edit control)
Also, I have never played with client side rendering overrides when the list is in datasheet/quick edit mode, so I can't comment on what's possible there, but obviously you'd have to account for that way of editing as well.