Welcome to the interesting path of SharePoint. As mentioned on another answer, search engines are your best friend to find the exact help for your need. Even the simplest questions, but also the more complex ones tend to be answered elsewhere so hopefully your knowledge searching skills are already up there.
I have nothing to add to the Aakash Morya's links in his answer for how to get started, so moving along:
Good blogs in no order:
And that's just to name few. You are very likely to find your own favorite blog during your learning process just by spotting who has posted the most helpful posts concerning your questions.
I'd only mention two here:
Just few words from my own experience: I got to know SharePoint by having a pre-installed environment having no production sites. I was given a task to develop a site collection with several features so I had to at first see what can be done out-of-the-box (the least time consuming) and which required further development (more time consuming). I'd suggest to
- try every web part and app on your test site,
- go through every settings you can find and try to figure out what are they meant for,
- move on to what you are supposed to do
E.g. if your task is to create a project site or a document approval tool, search on search engines how others have done it and mimic them. There are usually best practices and there are the simple ways to do it.
Last words would be that with SharePoint you definitely learn by doing.