I just want to know that what type of files/documents (word,excel...) we can edit in
It depends where you want to Open & edit documents, in the browser using the Office Online server or you want to edit them on the local machine.
Office Online Server is not configured by default, you have to setup a separate farm and connect it to the SharePoint server.
Office Online Server Support Word, Exel, PowerPoints file types.
if you have other 3rd party files to edit in SharePoint(browser) then you have to add their editor as a package in SharePoint i.e Mindjet is an example.
According to a website I have found it's:
Supported files for viewing: Word files: .doc, .dot, .dotx, .docx, .docm, .odt Powerpoint: .pot, .potm, .pps, .ppsm, .ppt, .pptm, .pptx, ppsx, .odp Excel .xls, .xlsx, .xlsm, .xlsb, .ods Supported files for viewing & editing: Word: .docx, .docm, .odt Excel: .xlsx, .xlsm, .xlsb, .ods Powerpoint: .pptx, ppsx, .odp
The answer is none.
As @Waqas pointed out you need the Office Web App server, which is a separate product from SharePoint. If you were running Enterprise - you would have access to Excel and Visio services, Standard edition come with none of that.
By default when you attempt to open a file it will it open in the supported desktop applications (i.e. work, excel, etc). This, however, is no longer in SharePoint, you are editing in the office or other client and then will save it back to SharePoint.