You are not writting version and SP2010 analytics is different than SP2013, so in a nutshell: SharePoint 2010 itself without any 3rd party tool records page / list / library / item opening with links and numbers, you can check the "Top active pages" report on a SC level for last (month, week, year...) in a simple page generated by the service if it is properly setuped and turned on. There is a possibility to export data to simple excel table, but anyway you must play with the numbers a little bit. Portal home page can be listed there by its DNS name, AAM name, like page with .aspx extension at the end and you must count all numbers to get one result for main page. Library items are on different rows (can be open with direct link from mail for example) than folders and each library itself has number of hits... And yes, you have to know what you are looking for. But at this time, we did nice monthly SC comparation between departments (content admins) like contest and it was a good motivation for them to keep pages updated...
SharePoint 2013 replace Top pages report with Popularity trend reports where we can still somehow see list of all pages sorted by their hits with links. Not only opened items are tracked, there is different metric for item rating (also represented by number) or showing in result page / displayed by user from result page (also represented like number). If you want to see for Popularity trends, find any wiki pages / site pages / pages (library, list) app and check its Ribbon menu. However, page shows hits for last 14 days and total count for whole time (marked as "ever") by default, so you must use slicer inside left refinement panel to narrow results, your custom code or Content Search Web Part.
GUI is not the only possibility how to get those numbers. They are still stored in Analytics DB (WSS_UsageApplication by default) in views for read and can be exported to an Excel or presented like PowerPivot table. You can also turn-on audit and track "Content viewing" or run "Custom reports", but it is quite performance / storage intensive and the result is again one huge Excel table, which must be modified (grouped, counted...).
If you can, you should try Google Analytics code to track much more things than page hits - from where users comes from, the most active day (or inactive for outages) start and exit pages, new visitors and more. Tracking specific links from other sources is somehow possible, but not so easy. Also not every company alows you to insert 3rd party code to pages or push logging data to the Internet, however for SPO public pages is the right choice, there is not analytics for anonymous access and (usually) no confidentional data. There Im not sure, how to bring results back to portal pages for users to read.
Almost all big 3rd party tools (HarePoint, CardioLog, Tryane, etc) can do what you want to achieve in nice charts with export to their own web parts - track pages, users, hits, clicks, also #tag or id=xx tags used in e-mail heading to SharePoint and vice versa and do your count more acurate, the only thing that you must do is to choose the right one (and convice someone in company to buy it).
Custom solution will help you as well, if you grab items from Event Store, read lines from Analytics DB and represent results like numbers somewhere. Data are inside, the representation is on you.