So, I created a new SharePoint Web Application (and a Site Collection to go with it) in SharePoint Foundation 2010. When I navigate to the URL I specified, I get a vanilla "This page can't be displayed" error. However, when I Browse the site in IIS, it takes me to http://localhost:18617/SitePages/Home.aspx, and the new site does come up... with the name that I specified and everything else.
The other site I had created when I set up the farm DOES come up the way it should. How come this new site doesn't resolve when I plug http://thenewsite/ into the browser? Did I miss a step?