I need to change the "Name" of a bunch of Folders but without changing their URL link. We have last year's dates in the title of the folder and need to update the dates. However, we have a document that links all of these folders so when I edited the name of the folder, the link no longer worked.
The folder defines the path. There's no way of getting around this. It's just like renaming a folder on your hard drive. If you have a link to a file on your hard drive, then change the folder name, any links to the previous folder will break since that folder no longer exists.
In general, if I know I'm going to be updating content each new year, I name folders and files without years/dates so that I don't have to update any links to them. I would have designed this library without folders, adding a separate column to include the week/day.
EDIT: If I had been brought into a project that was already set up this way and had to figure out what to do, I would try one of two approaches.
1) Add a column to hold the "W1D1 June 16" data, fill out this column for every document within each folder using datasheet view, then modify the view to display without folders and group by the new "W1D1 Month Day" field.
2) Use JSLink or JQuery to hide the "June 16" part of "W1D1 June 16"
The links from your document will still take people to the folder. But regardless of any workaround, the original folder name will still appear in the breadcrumbs.
Have you considered incorporating DocumentIDs into your workflow? I had a similar situation and DocumentIDs came to the rescue and I've been using it for the past 2 years. In a nutshell...when enabled, each document is assigned a unique DocID/hyperlink that allows you to rename and update documents without having to update the DocID/hyperlinks. The following page demonstrates how to activate and configure DocumentIDs in a site collection (but I think it requires Site Admin permissions): https://support.office.com/en-us/article/Activate-and-configure-Document-IDs-in-a-site-collection-66345c77-f079-4104-ac7a-e25826849306