I am trying to gather project ideas in a Sharepoint List that users will fill out via a web form. Does anyone know how to connect the two, so after the user clicks Submit, the data will appear in the SharePoint List?
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By web form if you are referring to a .Net page, you could use CSOM to connect to your site and create a new list item. MSDN article on CSOM
Another great idea would be to use REST API if you cannot have managed code.
Research a bit and you will be able to make a choice.
If you're hosting your own page as a form, you could use the REST-API from the server. This would enable you to use a techical user to access SharePoint. REST-APIs are usable from any language (PHP, Java, etc.)
If you're hosting your own page as a form on an asp.net-enabled server you could also use CSOM. Again, this would enable you to use a techical user to access SharePoint.
You could of cause host your form in SharePoint and use SP.js to access the List-data. If you'd do that (hosting in SharePoint) it would probably be better do directly use the NewForm.aspx.