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Difference between Index column and simple column in SharePoint?

What is the need of creating index column ?

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An indexed column in SharePoint makes sense to improve performances.
If your list contain a lot (~1000s) of records, and you often query (filter or sort) by a given column, you can index that column. That way, when displaying a filtered/sorted view (based on this column), SharePoint does not have to loop throuh all the items to decide whitch ones to display (firts): thanks to the index it can quickly get the elements it needs.

A lot of articles on the Web can be found, that discuss the topic deeply:

As you can see, it's only a matter of googling something like "sharepoint indexed column"...

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    Another reason for indexing a column, other than just performance is being able to query that column in a list that has a large number of items that exceed the View Threshold. If you try and query said list and just return a smaller number of results (Even 1), you'll get an error if you query a column that isn't indexed – Dan Harris Jan 28 '16 at 13:55

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