Any server-side code development (via .NET/C#/VB) using the Microsoft.SharePoint objects is going to give you trouble with Server Side Development if you do not have SharePoint installed. The great bulk of developers that I've seen setup a separate Dedicated Virtual Machine (using their favorite Hyper-Visor) on the local box if powerful enough, or in a cloud/remote setup if not. The Virtual Machine runs a Server grade OS (Server 2008/2012/2016), installs SharePoint and Visual Studio on the same box and the machine is up and running.
It's a bit troublesome, but it's worth it long term for the grief, and a good learning experience in setting up a SharePoint environment if you're relatively new to SharePoint.
Now if you're only developing Store Apps (basically client-only facing SharePoint Apps) you can get away without the server assemblies, but even then it's nice to have the SharePoint server nearby if you can help it.