ID is not valid column to use in Calculated Formulas, it is not displayed in the available columns for a reason.
It is 0 for newly created items as it gets its value from the database after all Formulas are evaluated
You get the correct values (in all existing items) if you re-edit the Formula
It is reset to 0 on Item update (I never investigated why)
Only way is to get hold of that ID in a Workflow and save it to another Column
If you really can not use Designer.. kinda like driving a Tesla, and not being allowed to use a charger
You need a CSR or other Script that checks for 0 values in that Calculated Formula, gets the correct ID and writes it back... it is going to be duc-tape..
Get clicked item ID from list
If you can not use a workflow to get ID into a separate field your other option is to use a Client Side Script which checks for invalid=0 ID and updates your own field.
Major drawback is this script will not run immediatly for every item( like a Workflow can) but has to be triggered somehow.
- You can trigger by hand (code in a CEWP)
- You can trigger in a View (code in CSR or Calculated Column)
Second option can be 'instant' as from a New Form you (normally) end up in the Default View of the List.