My team from Microsoft already has a SharePoint site up and running. My job is to take a portion of it and migrate it to TFS. My Manager told me that I have to find a staging environment for sharepoint so that I don't mess with the real site incase I mess up. However, on all of my searches I can't seem to figure how to set up a staging environment in Visual Studio for SharePoint and how to migrate info from SharePoint to TFS. If my question is way too loaded, please let me know what is wrong with this question so it can be more specific.
Sorry, but this doesn't sound quite right. A staging environment should match the configuration of the prod environment. I wouldn't just tell someone to create a staging environment, I'd give them the script that configured prod so they could just run the script to duplicate the environment. Without the script, you'd at least need to know the service pack level of prod, in addition to knowing what web apps exist, what settings they're configured with, etc. (to be clear, a staging environment isn't set up in visual studio, it's a full install of SP running on a different box (or, boxes)).
As far as taking a portion of the site and moving it to TFS? This doesn't make sense. TFS will store developer assets, such as custom web parts, apps, workflows, etc. But, you don't just take them from SP. They've been deployed to SP, so you would need a copy of the source code to move to TFS.
So, if you need a staging environment, you'd first need to know what prod is: SP 2013, SP 2010, Office 365? Then, unless its office 365, you get a spare server and spare SQL instance and install SP, configuring it as it exists in prod. Then, ramp up on building Solutions or Apps.