I'm new to sharepoint. And I just learnt how to create some master pages, but now I want to know how to style other things like tables (of lists and libraries)... for example:
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You should be able to do this using custom js link for the default list view, check out these sample it will direct you on how to implement it.
There is an awesome post which describes the appraoaches for JS Link check out: SP 2013: Using the JSLink property to change the way your field or views are rendered in SharePoint 2013
You can achieve this with what is called Client Side Rendering (CSR).
These are the best articles I have come across on CSR and how to use it:
I agree with the previous answers !
I have recently started using CSR to style both lists and some basic modifications to new / edit / display forms. Once you get going with it, there is quite a bit you can do.
The links provided are excellent, I just wanted to add one of my own with a working script as I struggled to find examples that showed how to 'get' the default html, modify it IF required and then pass it through.
Document library list view with LinkFilename displaying Title value and Title field hidden.
List new / edit form with some logic to hide rows when choice field changes.
This second one has an improved version (not tested with all types) of the helper function for retrieving the default SharePoint rendering that takes care of view, newform, editform and displayform variations.