I just did something similar for SharePoint 2013 but I'm pretty sure this works for 2010 as well.
You can pass in special query string parameters to your views on a list, namely FilterFieldN, FilterValueN, and FilterOpN (where N is a number between 1 and 10).
Example: http://example.com/lists/Tasks/AllItems.aspx?FilterField1=Title&FilterValue1=your_filter_value&FilterOp1=Contains should return all items from the Task list where Title contains "your_filter_value".
You can string up to 10 of these together on a given request.
What you can do is use your jQuery in a Content Editor Web Part that will build the URL containing the filter values (like the example above) and then redirect them to that page/view.
The advantage of this approach is it is straight forward, non-intrusive, and leverages functionality SharePoint already has built-in.