Yes, SharePoint 2013 On-Premises allows for sharing content in a team site with external users.
From a licensing perspective, you do not need client access licenses (CALs) for external users in your scenario since external users are covered by the SharePoint Server license. But, you would need a CAL for each internal user. And, if you have SharePoint 2013 Enterprise, you would also need an Enterprise CAL for each internal user as well.
From a "how to" perspective, assuming you are using Active Directory (AD) to authenticate all users, your external users need to be given AD accounts and then you need to set up the permissions for the external users accounts on your team site. The same concept applies if you are using a different form of authentication.